Iran’s varied landscape
produces several different climates. On the northern edge of
the country, the Caspian coastal plain, with an average
elevation at or below sea level, remains humid all year.
Winter temperatures rarely fall below freezing, and maximum
summer temperatures rarely exceed 29° C (85° F). Annual
precipitation averages 650 mm (26 in) in the eastern part of
the plain (Māzandarān Province) and more than 1,900 mm (75
in) in the western part (Gilān Province).
At higher elevations to
the west, settlements in the Zagros Mountain basins
experience lower temperatures. These areas are subject to
severe winters, with average daily temperatures below
freezing, and warm summers, averaging 25° C (77° F) in the
northwest and 33° C (91° F) in the central and southern
Zagros. Annual precipitation, including snowfall, averages
more than 280 mm (11 in) at higher elevations. Most
precipitation falls between October and April.
The central plateau
region also experiences regional variations. In Tehrān,
located at an elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft) on the
northern edge of the plateau, the temperature averages 2° C
(36° F) in January and 29° C (85° F) in July. The city
receives an average of 230 mm (9 in) of precipitation
annually. The arid basins of central and eastern Iran
generally receive less than 200 mm (8 in) of precipitation
per year. Yazd, for example, averages less than 70 mm (3 in)
of precipitation. Its winters are cool, but temperatures
almost never fall below freezing; summers are very hot,
averaging 38° C (100° F) for most of July and August.
The coastal plains along
the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have
mild winters, with average January temperatures ranging from
7° C to 18° C (45° F to 64° F) in Khūzestān Province;
average temperatures are even higher in Bandar-e ‘Abbās on
the Strait of Hormuz. Summers are very humid and hot, with
temperatures exceeding 48° C (119° F) during July in the
interior areas. Annual precipitation ranges from 145 mm to
355 mm (6 to 14 in) in this region.
The population of Iran
was estimated at 68,278,826 in 2003. This figure is more
than double the 1975 population of 33,379,000. Between 1956
and 1986 Iran's population grew at a rate of more than 3
percent per year. The growth rate began to decline in the
mid-1980s after the government initiated a major population
control program. By 2003 the growth rate had declined to 1.1
percent per year, with a birth rate of 17 per 1,000 persons
and a death rate of 6 per 1,000. In 1998, 44 percent of the
population was under age 15, 53 percent was between 15 and
64, and only 4 percent was aged 65 or older.
density in 2003 was 41 persons per sq km (107 per sq mi).
Northern and western Iran are more densely populated than
the arid eastern half of the country, where population
density in the extensive desert regions is only 1 percent of
the national average. In 2001, 65 percent of the population
lived in urban areas. About 99 percent of rural Iranians
resided in villages. Only 240,000 were nomads (people
without permanent residences who migrate seasonally), a
fraction of the 2 million nomads counted in 1966.
Tehrān, the country’s
capital and largest city, serves as the main administrative,
commercial, educational, financial, industrial, and
publishing center. Iran's other major cities include Mashhad,
a manufacturing and commercial center in the northeast and
the site of the country's most important religious shrine;
Eşfahān, a manufacturing center for central Iran with
several architecturally significant public buildings from
the 17th and 18th centuries; Tabrīz, the main industrial and
commercial center of the northwest; Shīrāz, a manufacturing
center in the south near the ruins of the ancient Persian
capital of Persepolis; and Ahvāz, the principal commercial
and manufacturing center in the southwestern oil region.
Send your questions
Back to the Beginning
Search for Truth-Words of Wisdom-Useful Information-Farsi
Translators-English Teachers-Persia Tourguides
Let’s Learn the Language-Holy Quran-Persian
Literature-English Literature-Homework Papers-Classwork...
www.Truthwise.net / by: Ali Azimi
This site is for:
“all learners of Knowledge and lovers of Truth”
Copyright 2007 -All